Development of a community and a nation as a whole depends upon the thinking level of people and available infrastructure which is considered as the pillar of development of education, health facilities, transport, communication, etc. for that the qualitative human resources like teachers, doctors, engineers, mechanics, lawyers, etc.; are needed. Only education can provide such skilled quality human resources. Education can make citizens conscious, intelligent, creative, responsible, independent and hard working. Such human qualities can utilize the resources of the country for the development. Such resources can bring positive social changes and promote economic development of a country. So, education is the most important basis for the development of the country.

In the earlier days there were no formal institutions like schools and campus to impart education. Education was imparted in religious institutions like Ashram, Monastery, Church and Madarsa. Pupils learnt about the holy scripts, and religious rites and rituals from their teachers. The medium of education was Sanskrit.

At around 1718 AD in the regime of Pratap Malla, the English were entered in the name of helping Pratap Malla against Prithvi Narayan Shah. Their only intention was to introduce their religion destroy the social, cultural value of Kathmandu Valley and take revenge that they could not in the past. Many English men had written different articles in a planned way to break the unity of Nepalese people. They had made several efforts to take over the decision for their best. Though, many Kepuchin Padaris has taken over many areas in Bhaktapur in the name of their religion; King Prithvi Narayan Shah had driven them away. The intention of the Britishers towards Nepal was clear in their Sugauli Treaty in 1815 BS, on the process of extension state of colony. These incidents had made a negative impact on the nepalese people and were not interested in English Language. (Shiva Dhakal 2062 BS, Tri-Chandra College: Historical era) Junga Bahadur Rana initiated English education after his visit to the European countries. He established English school in 1910 BS at Thapathali only for his family. Later, the school was shifted to the western side of Ranipokhari by Prime Minister Bir Shamsher. It was named Durbar High School. Today, it is called Bhanubhakta Secondary School. 

Chandra Shamsher-Initiated and established Tri-Chandra College in 1918 AD (1975 BS)
Junga Bahadur Rana-Established English School in 1910 BS at Thapathali only for his family
Dev Shamsher- opened hundreds of schools in and out of Kathmandu

Balguru Khadananda was the pioneer to establish Sanskrit School at Dingla, Bhojpur in 1932 BS. Two years later, in 1934 BS, Ranodip Singh established another Sanskrit school in Kathmandu.

In 1958 BS, Prime Minister Dev Shamsher established about a hundred schools within and outside the Kathmandu valley. In 1975 BS, Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher established the fi rst campus in Kathmandu valley, in the
name of the then King Tribhuvan and on his own name and called it Tri-Chandra College. His son-in-law, king of Bajhang, Jay Prithvi Bahadur Singh established Satyavati School and published various books for school children
and civil servants. He established and leaded the first Nepali newspaper “Gorkhapatra”.

The year 1990 BS is considered as a landmark in education in Nepal, with the establishment of the SLC Board.

The wave of education spread throughout the country with the advent of democracy in 2007 BS. The government and the people became more aware of the importance of education. At that time, the literacy rate of Nepal was about two percent only. The government formulated plans to educate people.

Nowadays, the education sector is developing rapidly due to involvement of private sectors in imparting quality education.


Important Phases of Educational Development in Nepal:
1.       1910 BS : Establishment of Durbar High School
2.      1932 BS : Establishment of Sanskrit School at Dingla, Bhojpur
3.      1958 BS : Beginning of Language Schools
4.      1975 BS : Establishment of Tri-Chandra College for higher education
5.      1990 BS : Establishment of the SLC Board
6.      2028 BS : Implementation of National Education System Plan
7.      2038 BS : Curriculum Implementation Plan
8.      2049 BS : Report of National Education Commission
9.      2055 BS : Report of High level National Education Commission


1.1. Timelines of the higher education in Nepal
1814-1816 AD:
27 Aswin, 1910 BS(13 October, 1853): Soon after the visit of Janga Bahadur established school inside his palace to educate his own relatives at Thapathali. Durbar School which is later named as Bhanubhakta Secondary School. Mr. Ross and Mrs. Canning were the teachers. Prime Minister Ranadip Singh continued the same in the shed of Bir Shamsher at the corner of Rani Pokhari. Bir Shamsher constructed a long two storey building and managed Sanskrit
Pathsala on the ground floor and Durbar School on the first floor at west of Rani Pokhari. Dev Shamsher opened the school to the school to the public by which the numbers of students increased from 100 to 500.

Jay Prithvi Bahadur Singh-Satyawati school and Gorakhapatra
Ranodip Singh- Continued the process……
Bir Shamsher
Allahabad University


1912 AD: British King George Fifth visited India and spoke the necessity of Campus Education in Nepal.                  31 December, 1916: Chandra Shamsher wrote a letter to Residence Koronell Belly at Kathmandu for the Art Education under the affiliation of Kolkatta University. In his letter, it was mentioned that by that time, the Durbar High School and its examination were under the same university. Since, Illahbad University has already involved Nepali language as a subject, he requested the University to include Nepali Language for the comfort and welfare of Nepali students in their own country.
4 April, 1917: Koronell Baily answered the letter after correspondence with British Government. In that letter, he suggested to take affiliation of the proposed campus and Durbar School under the Illahbad University. He further
wrote that according to the University Act 1904 , the process of affiliation is needed to be permitted from Government. So, it is better to give exam of the Nepali Students as private students.
3 October, 1917: Bada Kaji Marichman Singh Shrestha requested the then lawer of Banaras, Ambika Prasad Upadhayaya to build up an aggrement for the affiliation of Durbar School and proposed campus under Patna University.
9 November, 1917: Ambika Prasad agreed for the affiliation. However, he suggested that it was better to take affiliation under Illahbad University. He further suggested to open a new seperate “Nepal University” in Nepal in case, the affiliation is not given. Moreover, he advised to design a university, compatible with mother tongue Nepali, in local environment and necessity unlike Oxford and Cambridge University.

University of Calcutta

11 November, 1917: Badakaji Marichman replied a letter with thanks to Upadhayaya for giving emphasis for the same affiliation process. As, it costs high to establish a new university. Further, he wrote to send the information about the Acts, Structure and Curriculum of the University to the Government of Nepal. Badakaji Marichman Shrestha wrote a letter to the Rector of Patna University for the affiliation of the proposed campus and Durbar School instead of Calcutta University and send the acts and curriculum of that University.
15 November, 1917: Patna University informed Marichman Singh that the University personnels will forward the proposal in Syndicate and further wrote that Since, Nepal is not under the region of University, it is tough to forward
the process without the permission of Government of India.
December, 1917: Koronell Baily wrote a letter to Chandra Shamsher about his effort to affiliate the proposed campus and Durbar School under Patna University.
January, 1918: Chandra Shamsher replied Baily being informed about his effort of writing letter to Indian Government. Their intention is to treat students of Durbar School as private and that of proposed campus as non collegiate student. Both type of students will give exam at Bihar and Udisha Center and will recommend the syndicate to take the exam of hilly language Nepali.
18 June, 1918: Baily insisted Chandra Shamsher to decline on his stand and

Patna University

agree to follow the Rules and Regulations imposed by the Government of India in the cost of education in Nepal. Finally, Chandra Shamsher agreed to do so after a long hesitation. Soon after, Baily reported Chandra Shamsher’s
agreement to the Government of India.
25 June, 1918: Chandra Shamsher wrote a letter to the Government of India about the information given by Baily. He was informed that the Indian Government will accept the proposed campus students as non collegiate and
school students as private. Further, the students who have passed sent-up will be able to attain exam of Metric, I.A. and I. Sc. At the centers appointed by the University. In the same letter Chandra Shamsher agreed to follows all the
Rules and Regulations of Government of India.
1 August, 1918: Baily wrote a letter to Chandra Shamsher about the acceptance of the proposal by the Government of India.
21 August, 1918 (5 Bhadra, 1975): Affiliation was provided by the Patna University.
28 August, 1918 (12 Bhadra, 1975): After the affiliation provided by Patna University, Nepal established the campus named Tribhuvan-Chandra Campus at Masliz House at Durbar School and started teaching Math, History and Language.
29 August, 1918 (13 Bhadra, 1975): The government of Nepal informed Baily and Patna University about the establishment of the Tribhuvan-Chandra Campus. The campus was started with 8 students. The 8 students were; Colonel Nararaj Shamsher JBR, L. K. Ek Raj Shamsher JBR, Chautaria Bhairav Bahadur Pradhan, Bhairav Bahadur Rajbhandari, Siddhi Bahadur Malla, Khadka Bikrma Shah, Buddhigambhir Singh and Dil Bahadur Khatri. They
were under Art Stream with subjects: Mathematics, History, English, Nepali and


King Tribhuvan and Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher

Sanskrit. Science Stream was started after the completion of its own building. There were 9 professors and demonstrators. The principal of the campus was former Head of Durbar School, Shree Batu Krishna Maitra, a Bangali. In the mean time, Headmaster of Durbar School, Saradha Mukhopadhyaya, Sanskrit Head Pundit Avaypadh Chatopadhyaya and Ranipokhari Sanskrit Pathsala, Head Pundit Somnath Sigdel were appointed in Tribhuvan-Chandra Campus. The building of the campus was on the land of Gehendra Shamsher-the first
scientist of Nepal, and his son where Bir Shamsher has already constructed Ghantaghar and Bir Library. The building was constructed in 14 months at the cost of NRs 70,000.
27 Ashwin, 1976 (13 October, 1918): The building was inaugurated by King Tribhuwan and by opening the Silver Lock with a Silver Key on the door of class room where the students of 1st year studied. Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher has donated NRs 20,000 for Laboratory Equipments for the two departments: Physics & Chemistry and Nrs 5,000 for books in library.
1976 BS (1920 AD): I. Sc. started under Patna University(PU).
1978 BS: Economics Department established(Jyotsna, 2070-FSU)
1922 AD: Students of IA and ISc appeared exam.
1981 BS(1924 AD): The name Tribhuvan-Chandra was changed to Tri-Chandra College. B.A with subjects Sanskrit, History, English, Economics and Political Science started in the same year.
1926 AD : BA students appeared exam.
1982 BS: S.K. Das appointed for Economics Department, metric, IA, BA, supplement exam conducted in Kathmandu by Patna University.                                                                                                                                                          1986 BS (1938 AD): Juddha High School established in Birjung.
1990 BS: S.L.C. Board established. Before it was conducted by Calcutta University.
1994 BS: Prof. Ramchandra Washa has appointed to run French Language but its continuation is unknown. Ratna Bahadur Bista was appointed in economics department in place of SK Das.
1998 BS: Department of Environment was established.
2002 BS: The First RCC building in Nepal, “Saraswoti Sadan” was constructed.
2004 BS (1948 AD): B. Sc. (Physical Group) started, the first poetry conference in Nepal and the Extra-curricular Activities (ECA) were also organized on the same year. Department of Geography added.

2007 BS: Department of Political Science started.
22 Shrawan, 2007: ISc/BSc Biological Group started.
17 Aswin, 2011: Classes in Department of Commerce started.
2015 BS: B.A. (Honors) proposed
1959 AD (2016 BS): Tribhuvan University was established. Nepal National Campus housed temporarily (1951 AD) at Durbar High School was under and started at Tri-Chandra College. The English of bachelor level of National
Campus (Now Shanker Dev Campus) and Commerce Subject of Public Commerce Campus (now Public Youth Campus) were conducted till 2017 BS before the establishment of Tribhuvan University.(Yagyaraj Acharya 2062,
Role of Tri-Chandra Campus in Higher Education in Nepal).
2017 BS: B.A. (Honors) accepted by PU. I. Sc. and B. Sc. of evening was shifted to morning.                                    2021 BS: Department of Statistics established.
2023 BS(1966 AD): M. Sc. Chemistry established and later shifted to TU, Kirtipur.(Jyotsna, 2070-FSU)
2024 BS(1967 A.D.): Department of Geology established.
2028 BS: Intermediate and Bachelor Degree of Management was Shifted as Shanker Dev Campus in 1973 AD. It was due to the government policy of amalgamating it into Tribhuvan University and recognizing Prof. Shanker
Dev Pant’s contribution, motivated primarily by his missionary zeal, towards purchasing a site and erecting a building for the campus.
2030 BS: I.A., I. Com., B. Com., Hindi Language closed but B.A. evening started.
2031 BS: Department of Hydrology and Meteorology established.
2038 BS(1981 AD): Department of Microbiology for B. Sc. established.
2042 BS: Department of Sociology for B.A was established.
2050 BS: 75th year Celebration of Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus in the presence of Late King Birendra and Queen Aishworya
2053 BS: MA Nepali
2065 BS: M. Sc. Chemistry again started.
2070/71 BS: M. Sc. Engineering Geology
2072/2073: M.A. Anthropology separately established.
From Bhadra 5 of 2074 BS, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus is going to celebrate its Centennial Year with various programs for one year.                                                                                                                                                                        Tri-Chandra College pronounced as Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus after it has became the constituent campus of Tribhuvan University in 1959 AD. (2016 BS). Source: Jyotsna, 2062, 2065,2072